Climate Citizens
10th November 2020

The UK has committed to reducing carbon emissions to net-zero by 2050. How will people respond to this challenge? What scope is there for people to live their lives differently, and how can government enable this shift? How can citizens work with government, to shape a climate strategy that works for them?

Climate Citizens, a new research initiative enabled by a UKRI-funded Fellowship, investigates citizen engagement in energy and climate governance (here’s the website). It will use deliberative methodologies, bringing citizens together with experts to develop new understandings of the role of the individual in governance, and to co-design policy and strategy.

We have a particular focus on embedding deliberative methods into the policy process. In September 2020, Climate Assembly UK, the Citizens’ Assembly on Climate Change commissioned by Parliament, launched its findings. Recent months have also seen an upsurge of Assemblies and Juries at local level. How can the results of these processes be incorporated into policy and governance? Are there ways in which deliberation can become embedded into policymaking? And crucially, how can climate strategies and policies themselves be designed to encourage greater engagement?

The initiative is a partnership between Lancaster University, the Committee on Climate Change, the Energy System Catapult, the UK Energy Research Centre, and the Centre for Climate and Social Transformation (CAST). It is funded by UK Research and Innovation.

The project began in October 2020. Please do get in touch – we’d love to hear your views to help shape the work.


news research
How do politicians understand and respond to climate change?
12th October 2018

With the IPCC’s latest report showing the urgent need for action on climate change, attention has turned once again to that tricky issue of ‘political will’. In the words of Christiana Figueres, previously head of the UN’s climate body, there is “an acute need for speed, radical collaboration, and more visionary political leadership”.

But what do the politicians themselves think? What does the deceptively simple phrase ‘political will’ mean to elected representatives, who are called on to act?

This is a question I have been studying since 2014, in a collaborative research project with Lancaster University and Green Alliance. There’s a summary report about to be published, and rumours of a book – but in the mean time, here’s a quick run through the project and its results.

The research included analysis of parliamentary speeches, a focus group with NGO representatives, and interviews with 23 current and former Members of Parliament (MPs).

The study found that, whilst most politicians understand the need for action on climate change, it is not straightforward for them to make the case for it. There are three main reasons for this.

First, climate change is seen as an ‘outsider’ issue, not something discussed as part of the political mainstream of politics.This article, published in the Sociological Review, explores how politicians navigate their role and their working environment, and how climate action fits in.

Second, politicians feel under very little pressure to act on climate change. They report limited interest from their constituents, and need to find ways to make climate action relevant to the daily lives and concerns of the electorate. This article, published in the journal Political Studies, describes how they find ways to connect.

Third, there are practical, procedural and even psychological difficulties in responding to climate change, as large scale, long term challenges do not fit well with the daily practice of politics. This paper, published in Environmental Politics, discusses this, and more will be published on this shortly.

The project uses these insights to suggest ways of developing a renewed political mandate for climate action in the UK, published in a briefing paper for Green Alliance. To summarise:

  • The targets enshrined in the Climate Change Act need to be strengthened, with responsibility shared across government departments and local areas.
  • Greater use of deliberative processes, such as Citizens’ Assemblies, could allow politicians, citizens and experts to meet on equal terms, to assess evidence and agree how targets could be met in ways that improve social and economic outcomes.
  • There is a need to design policies which themselves build engagement and public support, rather than assuming passive consent from the electorate.
  • Institutional changes, such as those now adopted in Wales, could allow greater consideration of the future in political decision making.

As a result of this research, I was appointed an Expert Lead for Climate Assembly UK, the Citizens’ Assembly established by the UK Parliament. The Assembly will report its findings later this year.

Publications from the project:

Willis R (2018) Building the political mandate for climate action. Green Alliance policy insight. This is a short and accessible summary of research findings.

Willis R (2017) How Members of Parliament understand and respond to climate change. The Sociological Review 66(3): 475–491.

Willis R (2017) Taming the Climate? Corpus analysis of politicians’ speech on climate change.Environmental Politics26(2): 212–231.

Willis R (2018) Constructing a ‘representative claim’ for action on climate change: Evidence from interviews with politicians.Political Studies advance online publication, January.

Willis R (2018)  The use of composite narratives to present interview findings Qualitative Research advance online publication, July.

Willis R (2019) The role of national politicians in global climate governance, Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, advance online publication, November.

Presentations from the project:

Understanding political responses to climate change: A collaborative research project with Lancaster University
2nd March 2015
In 2009, I helped to establish Green Alliance’s Climate Leadership Programme, which since then, has worked with politicians to develop their understanding of climate change, and what it means for their role at both national and constituency level.

But how do politicians navigate climate change? How do they understand the issue, and how do they decide what to do about it?

In a collaboration between Lancaster University and Green Alliance, I’m now conducting research to gain a deeper understanding of climate politics, and how to support politicians in their efforts to tackle the issue.

Funded by the Economic and Social Research Council, this project will run until 2018.

Find out more in this introductory post on Green Alliance’s blog.